Extractables and Leachables

Extractables and Leachables (E&L) are essential areas of concern for the pharmaceutical and food industries, specifically regarding their packaging, usage components (e.g., medical devices or syringes), and the manufacturing chain. We will examine testing of analysis of them within pharmaceutical applications. The two terms are related but distinct, each with its own analytical requirements.   

Definitions of Extractables and Leachables 

A handy article published in Pharmaceutical Engineering by the International Society for Pharmaceutical Engineering (ISPE) explains that “Extractables are chemical compounds that migrate from single-use systems (SUS) into model solvent solutions under controlled and exaggerated conditions depending on temperature, pH, polarity, and time.” In other words, this happens when using strong solvents. They note that “SUS are normally not exposed to such conditions in biopharmaceutical processes.”1  

ISPE’s article defines leachables as “chemical compounds that migrate from SUS into process solutions under normal biopharmaceutical process conditions. They further clarify that these compounds “may end up in the final drug product formulation. For the most part, leachables are a subset of extractables, although interaction with product components may produce leachables not seen as extractables.”1 

Guidance on Extractables and Leachables 

The FDA has released a series of guidelines for the pharmaceutical industry, including Container Closure Systems for Packaging Human Drugs and Biologics, that provide guidance for submission in support of an original application for any drug product. It also covers a wide range of forms and delivery systems of drugs:

  • Inhaled 
  • Injected 
  • Liquid-based  
  • Oral  
  • Solid oral dosage forms  
  • Ophthalmic 
  • Topical and topical delivery systems  
  • Powders for reconstitution   
  • And other dosage forms 

Additionally, the International Council for Harmonization of Technical Requirements for Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH) also has issued the ICH Q3E: Guideline for Extractables and Leachables.2,3 These are both useful in providing direction for E&L concerns and control strategies. 

Plan Against Extractables and Leachables 

To guarantee adherence to all guidelines and regulations while ensuring patient safety, it is crucial to know and utilize materials compatible with your product. To accomplish this, solvent use, packaging, and delivery systems must all be tested and analyzed in CGMP and FDA-compliant laboratories.  This should include the following:

  • A thorough review of all materials used in packaging and production, production, and equipment to predict the compatibility of your packaging system with your product. AAL can provide reports for items from each step. 
  • Extraction studies on the materials used. 
  • Leachable studies to identify any impurity resulting from those materials found in the final product under normal usage conditions. 
  • If impurities are detected, AAL can provide toxicological evaluations, including profiles of the impurities and the risks they pose for the patients, establish safety limits, or adjust for different forms of medication application. 
  • We can assess risks created by various exposure levels due to the impurity in the finished product. 
  • Finally, AAL provides a detailed report of our findings in accordance with the applicable governing bodies (e.g., FDA, EMA, PQRI, PDA). 

 SK pharmteco Analytical Services can review your analysis and testing needs for extractables and leachables for any forms and delivery systems listed in the table above, complying with the strictest standards necessary. 

References 

  1. https://ispe.org/pharmaceutical-engineering/may-june-2017/extractables-leachables-not-same 
  2. https://www.fda.gov/media/70788/download 
  3. https://database.ich.org/sites/default/files/ICH_Q3E_ConceptPaper_2020_0710.pdf 

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